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It is bordered to the south with the Selous Game Reserve and the two areas forming a unique ecosystem. Two other natural areas bordering the national park are the Udzungwa Mountains and Uluguru Mountains. The landscape of Mikumi is often compared to that of the Serengeti. The road that crosses the park divides it into two areas with partially distinct environments. The area north-west is characterized by the alluvial plain of the river basin Mkata. The vegetation of this area consists of savannah dotted with acacia, baobab, tamarinds, and some rare palm.
Ruaha National Park is the largest national park in Tanzania and East Africa. The name of the park is derived from the Great Ruaha River, which flows along its south eastern margin and is the focus for game-viewing. The park can be reached by car from Iringa and Dar Es Salaam. The park has a very large elephant population. More than 571 species of birds have been identified in the park. Among the resident species are hornbills. Many migratory birds visit the park.